FEMA was established in 1978 under the Reorganization Plan number 3 and was activated by Jimmy Carter via executive order. At it's inception it absorbed several other programs also dealing with disaster response. Among the first disasters FEMA dealt with was the dumping of toxic waste in Niagara Falls and Three Mile Island. This showed the FEMA could respond to large scale disasters but also showed some inefficiencies with the agency. During Clinton's term he elevated FEMA to cabinet level which was not continued under President Bush. Following the September 11 attacks, the Department of Homeland Security was created and absorbed FEMA.